The Project Gutenberg eBook of Which Shall Live—Men or Animals?, by Ernest Harold Baynes

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the United States and most other parts of the world at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at If you are not located in the United States, you will have to check the laws of the country where you are located before using this eBook.

Title: Which Shall Live—Men or Animals?

Author: Ernest Harold Baynes

Release Date: July 31, 2021 [eBook #65970]

Language: English

Produced by: Donald Cummings and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at (This file was produced from images generously made available by The Internet Archive/American Libraries.)


Saved by Antitoxin

Which Shall Live—
Men or Animals?

Reprinted from Hygeia, October, 1923

Copyright, 1923
American Medical Association,
535 N. Dearborn St., Chicago





If the United States were threatened with invasion by a foreign power, even if we knew that the invasion would be only temporary and that only a few thousand of our citizens would be killed, the whole country would be aroused in an effort to prevent that invasion. If necessary, millions of men would be drafted and trained to meet the invaders and billions of dollars would be expended to protect those few thousand people from the death that must otherwise overtake them. In such a case, every real man and every real woman in the country would be doing something to insure the defeat of that invading army. Yet such an army is like a box of tin soldiers compared with armies that threaten us all the time, but which cause scarcely an extra beat of the nation’s pulse. I refer to the armies of disease. The army of bubonic plague alone, if permitted to effect a foothold on our shores, might at any time ravage our cities as it once ravaged the cities of Europe and Asia, leaving scarcely enough living to bury the dead. We read in DeFoe’s “History of the Plague” in London in 1665 of “people in the rage of their distemper or in the torment[2] of their swellings, which were indeed intolerable, running out of their own government, raving and distracted, and often times laying violent hands upon themselves, throwing themselves out of windows, shooting themselves, mothers murdering their own children in their lunacy.” Indeed, we do not have to go back so far to realize what the plague can do. In 1905 in India alone there were 1,040,429 deaths from this one disease.

The Conquest of Bubonic Plague

In this country no layman loses any sleep on account of bubonic plague. Is that because it does not exist? Not at all. It comes to our waters, even effects a landing sometimes. But we have a small garrison of vigilant medical men on our coasts watching day and night for that enemy, ready to give him instant combat if he comes. We sleep in peace because we trust that garrison. Thirty years ago we did not know what caused this terrible plague, but in 1894 the germ (Bacillus pestis bubonicae) was discovered. Even then it was not known how the disease was carried or what caused it to spread so rapidly—and before it could be combated successfully, that must be known. A series of experiments on living animals, chiefly rats, guinea-pigs and monkeys, yielded the desired information and through these experiments we have been delivered from this terrible scourge. It was known that rats were subject to plague; consequently[3] attempts were made to find out how it was transmitted from one rat to another. The idea that it might be carried by parasites occurred to several investigators. Accordingly, healthy rats were placed in cages close to diseased rats; they remained perfectly well until a few fleas were introduced. Then, almost immediately, the hitherto healthy rats were stricken with plague. Cages containing healthy monkeys were suspended over cages occupied by diseased and flea-infested rats. At regular intervals the monkeys were lowered nearer to the stricken rodents. The monkeys were all right until they were brought within jumping distance of a flea, when they at once contracted the plague. These and other experiments left no doubt that rat fleas were the carriers among animals, and since rat fleas also feed on man when their natural prey is not available, it was an easy matter to show that the plague is spread by means of rat fleas. This led to a definite program for checking the spread of the disease, by relentless warfare on fleas and the rats that carried them. The rats were trapped, their breeding places destroyed, and diseased rats from infested ports were prevented from entering the country. For example, when it was found that rats frequently come ashore along the cables stretched between the ships and the wharves, metal cones similar to those used to prevent rodents from climbing into corn cribs were placed on the cables. The fact that[4] I wish to emphasize is that it is due to experiments on living mammals that this black death is no longer a terror to us.

Experimental Study of Health and Disease

Until the middle of the last century very little had been done in the way of experimental study of physiology and pathology. Physicians depended almost entirely on bedside observations. Some of these physicians were wonderful men, and often their observations were remarkably shrewd. But the human body is a complex machine, the organs are so interdependent, that in the presence of any given set of symptoms and signs of disease, it was almost impossible to be sure just what caused them, and, consequently, what was best to do for the patient. When the experimental method was adopted disease could be observed systematically, conditions could be controlled, and the phenomena that resulted could be studied intelligently because the experimenter knew exactly what had produced them. In such experiments mammals are the animals chiefly used, because in most respects they most nearly resemble man, himself a mammal. Practically all the domestic mammals have been used, horses, cattle, sheep, goats, swine, dogs, cats, rabbits, guinea-pigs, and rats and mice; monkeys are also used. And all have made wonderful contributions to medicine or surgery or both.


Types of Experiments on Animals


There are several classes of experiments. Some are in the field of pure research, not having for their object any immediate benefit to man or animals. Experiments of this nature were carried on some years ago in work on bubonic plague among rodents in California. It was discovered that ground squirrels have a disease similar to plague and yet distinctly different. By a long series of experiments it was found that monkeys are susceptible to this disease, and it was predicted that eventually cases would be found in man. As a result of this work a bacteriologist in Cincinnati was able to identify the disease in persons in his own vicinity. Another investigator found it among persons in Utah, and showed that it is carried from infected rabbits and ground squirrels by biting insects. It also was shown that the disease is widespread over the United States. With this knowledge of the means of transmission of the disease it is comparatively easy to prevent the infection of man.


Another class of experiments is carried on by surgeons to develop dexterity before they attempt operations on man. Such experiments are usually carried out on dogs. The animals are invariably under complete anesthesia and usually they are killed by added ether at the end of the experiment.


Does this dog look unhappy? Ten years ago Buster had an operation performed on the stomach; the results have been of aid in the study of digestion. Buster has not suffered thereby, and she has saved much suffering to others. She is receiving a visit from the author.

Recently I attended the clinic of a throat specialist in the east. I saw child after child wheeled into the amphitheatre and relieved, usually in a few moments, of foreign bodies that they had sucked into the windpipe and that a few years ago would in many cases have caused death, either directly or as the result of a dangerous operation. So dextrous is this man that his little patients do not need any anesthetic. After his work was done I had a talk with him, and he told me that the technic of[7] these operations had been worked out with great care on dogs that were always under an anesthetic. He also told me that by the use of two dogs he had trained fifty other men to do similar work.

This is Whitey, about eight months after the complete removal of the parathyroid glands. These glands are quite often partly and accidentally removed during operations on the thyroid gland in man, with alarming and sometimes fatal results. Following complete removal of the parathyroid glands, carnivorous animals, including man, die within from four to six days. As a result of experimental work on this dog and other animals, three effective curative measures have been developed, which indefinitely preserve the life of such animals in normal health. Two persons are known to have been saved and several others have been rendered free from symptoms as a result of this study.


In the Civil War if a man was shot through the bowels, he was doomed to death; the surgeons[8] hardly dared to open the abdomen and if they did they didn’t know how to join the ends of the bowel so that it would not leak. Of course the slightest leak meant infection and death. Then came along an experimenter who etherized about thirty dogs, shot them through the bowels, and practiced joining bowel ends until he could make a perfect joint. It is safe to say that in the World War the lives of thousands of men were saved as a result of that series of experiments.

These children at the Anna Durand Hospital, Chicago, have been saved from death from diphtheria by the use of antitoxin. The boy in the center has a squint as the result of his sickness.

Lockjaw, tetanus, chiefly a disease of war, that threatened to take frightful toll of soldiers wounded on the tetanus-infected battlefields of[9] Europe, did little damage during the late war because of antitetanus serum made from the blood of immunized horses. Every wounded man received an injection of this serum at the earliest possible moment, and usually the length of time that had intervened determined whether the man would live or whether he would die a most distressing and horrible death.

The homes of this boy and girl have to thank research workers and animals for the lives saved by antitoxin for diphtheria. Without antitoxin, developed by experimental work on animals, such children would have had slim chances of recovery.

The antityphoid vaccine, also worked out on mammals and tested on mammals, has practically abolished typhoid fever in soldiers’ camps. It is estimated by the Surgeon[10] General’s office that during the World War it saved the lives of 60,000 men in the American army alone.

On the roof garden of the Home for Destitute Crippled Children, Chicago. Suppose one of these victims of infantile paralysis were your child? Would you hesitate to sacrifice under ether one or more animals if through the knowledge gained the disease could have been prevented, or your child could have recovered without being crippled?

Benefits of Experimentation to Man

These are only a very few examples from the long list of benefits that have accrued to humanity through the use of living mammals for experimental purposes. I must mention only one more—the recent discovery of a specific treatment for diabetes. Less than two years ago I invited a little girl to go for[11] a bird walk with me that I might give her the pleasure of stroking and feeding a wild bird in its nest. I was particularly eager that she should enjoy that day, because both she and I knew that she had not many days to live. She was doomed to die of diabetes within six months; as a matter of fact she died in less than three months from the date of our walk. I remember thinking that I would give anything I possessed if I could by some miracle restore that child to health. Today, less than two years later, that miracle could be performed, because Dr. F. G. Banting of the University of Toronto, by a brilliant series[12] of experiments on dogs, has completed investigations begun on rabbits by Claude Bernard seventy-five years ago. The story of this wonderful discovery is long, but here are the outstanding facts. It was found that when the pancreas of a dog is removed, the animal at once develops acute diabetes and usually dies of that disease within three or four weeks. Under the microscope the pancreas is seen to be studded with countless little bodies, known as the islands of Langerhans, after the German scientist who discovered them. It was found that these islands secrete a substance quite different from that secreted by the rest of the pancreas, and that it is the absence of this substance, not the absence of the pancreas itself, that causes diabetes. A method was devised for obtaining an extract from these islands of Langerhans, and it was found that when this extract was injected into a dog whose pancreas has been removed it did not die, but got well and continued to be well as long as it was given injections of this extract. After these injections had been proved to be safe by repeated experiments on dogs, they were tried on human patients with startlingly beneficial results. Even when the disease is of long standing, when the patient has reached the very last stage and is in the coma that immediately precedes death, injections of this extract, now known to the world as insulin, will bring him out of the coma, snatch him from the very jaws of death, and restore him to health.

Pacific and Atlantic

Not man alone, but animals also have benefited by experimental work. The best example of this is the conquest of hydrophobia.


The False Stand of the Antivivisectionists

We have seen that all these great advances in medicine and surgery have been made as the result of experiments on living mammals, and you will agree, I believe, that in all probability further advances in these fields must be brought about by the same means. This is the opinion of practically all eminent physicians and surgeons and veterinarians, and of all the great scientists and educators in other fields—in short, it is the opinion of all persons who have vast responsibilities for the health of men and of animals. The only persons who are opposed to these reasonable experiments are the antivivisectionists, who have no such responsibilities. Would any sane person think of going to the antivivisectionists for help if there were an epidemic of smallpox or diphtheria, or if there were an outbreak of hog cholera or of blackleg in cattle? We don’t go to them because they know nothing about such matters. Yet they boldly contradict all competent authorities and tell us that experiments on animals are useless, that they have never accomplished anything. The antivivisection societies are composed largely of well disposed but woefully misinformed persons. And those who are responsible for the misinformation are the leaders of the antivivisectionists. I have been studying these leaders for some years, and I may say, without any danger of my statements being disproved, that among them may be found many of the most dangerous[14] of the criminal insane to be found in this country today—and I have recently visited some of our largest penitentiaries and asylums. I have found some of these leaders of the antivivisection movement to be guilty of falsehood, slander, libel, perjury, forgery, and attempted bribery. Under false pretenses they obtain money from weakminded and unthinking people and, with this money, they wilfully and perennially attempt not only to prevent the advance of medicine and surgery, but also to break down the bulwarks of preventive medicine by teaching contempt of vaccination and of the use of antitoxins.

Few of the criminals in our jails are responsible for the deaths of more than a small number of persons; few of them have attempted widespread destruction of life. But it is the opinion of eminent physicians that through the pernicious teachings of the antivivisection leaders we shall in a few years have epidemics that will destroy the lives of many thousands of children. Unless we wish for a return of the plagues and pestilences that once devastated wide areas on this world before the introduction of modern methods, we should use every means in our power to discourage these dangerous fanatics. I believe that it is the duty of all good citizens who belong to antivivisection societies to send in their resignations at once, and to stand with our government, our great physicians, surgeons, veterinarians, agriculturalists, educators,[15] and divines in approving and supporting properly conducted animal experimentation and sane humane education generally.

After the presentation of this paper by Mr. Baynes before the American Society of Mammalogists, at its fifth annual meeting, May 15 to 17, 1923, in the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, the Society unanimously passed these resolutions:

Whereas, It is a fact known to all thinking people that most of the great advances in medicine and surgery have been made as a result of experiments on living animals, especially mammals, and

Whereas, It is the belief of our eminent physicians, surgeons, and veterinarians, and all others having great responsibility for the health of human beings and of animals, that future advances in these fields will be made chiefly as the result of similar experiments, and

Whereas, It is known that these experiments almost invariably are conducted humanely and with a minimum of discomfort to the animals used, and

Whereas, There is an organized movement being carried on by certain misinformed and misguided individuals who seek to prevent or seriously interfere with such experiments, be it

Resolved, that we, members of the American Society of Mammalogists, in annual convention assembled in the city of Philadelphia, on the sixteenth day of May, 1923, are of opinion that, in the best interests of real humanity, animal experimentation, including vivisection, as practiced in our laboratories today, should continue unhampered.


A Journal of Individual and Community Health

The publication through which the medical profession of the United States presents to the public interesting, instructive and authoritative articles about health

Published Monthly
$3.00 the year—25 cents the copy

American Medical Association
535 North Dearborn Street - CHICAGO

Transcriber’s Note:

Archaic and variable spelling has been preserved.

Updated editions will replace the previous one—the old editions will be renamed.
Creating the works from print editions not protected by U.S. copyright law means that no one owns a United States copyright in these works, so the Foundation (and you!) can copy and distribute it in the United States without permission and without paying copyright royalties. Special rules, set forth in the General Terms of Use part of this license, apply to copying and distributing Project Gutenberg™ electronic works to protect the PROJECT GUTENBERG™ concept and trademark. Project Gutenberg is a registered trademark, and may not be used if you charge for an eBook, except by following the terms of the trademark license, including paying royalties for use of the Project Gutenberg trademark. If you do not charge anything for copies of this eBook, complying with the trademark license is very easy. You may use this eBook for nearly any purpose such as creation of derivative works, reports, performances and research. Project Gutenberg eBooks may be modified and printed and given away--you may do practically ANYTHING in the United States with eBooks not protected by U.S. copyright law. Redistribution is subject to the trademark license, especially commercial redistribution.
To protect the Project Gutenberg™ mission of promoting the free distribution of electronic works, by using or distributing this work (or any other work associated in any way with the phrase “Project Gutenberg”), you agree to comply with all the terms of the Full Project Gutenberg™ License available with this file or online at
Section 1. General Terms of Use and Redistributing Project Gutenberg™ electronic works
1.A. By reading or using any part of this Project Gutenberg™ electronic work, you indicate that you have read, understand, agree to and accept all the terms of this license and intellectual property (trademark/copyright) agreement. If you do not agree to abide by all the terms of this agreement, you must cease using and return or destroy all copies of Project Gutenberg™ electronic works in your possession. If you paid a fee for obtaining a copy of or access to a Project Gutenberg™ electronic work and you do not agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement, you may obtain a refund from the person or entity to whom you paid the fee as set forth in paragraph 1.E.8.
1.B. “Project Gutenberg” is a registered trademark. It may only be used on or associated in any way with an electronic work by people who agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement. There are a few things that you can do with most Project Gutenberg™ electronic works even without complying with the full terms of this agreement. See paragraph 1.C below. There are a lot of things you can do with Project Gutenberg™ electronic works if you follow the terms of this agreement and help preserve free future access to Project Gutenberg™ electronic works. See paragraph 1.E below.
1.C. The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation (“the Foundation” or PGLAF), owns a compilation copyright in the collection of Project Gutenberg™ electronic works. Nearly all the individual works in the collection are in the public domain in the United States. If an individual work is unprotected by copyright law in the United States and you are located in the United States, we do not claim a right to prevent you from copying, distributing, performing, displaying or creating derivative works based on the work as long as all references to Project Gutenberg are removed. Of course, we hope that you will support the Project Gutenberg™ mission of promoting free access to electronic works by freely sharing Project Gutenberg™ works in compliance with the terms of this agreement for keeping the Project Gutenberg™ name associated with the work. You can easily comply with the terms of this agreement by keeping this work in the same format with its attached full Project Gutenberg™ License when you share it without charge with others.
1.D. The copyright laws of the place where you are located also govern what you can do with this work. Copyright laws in most countries are in a constant state of change. If you are outside the United States, check the laws of your country in addition to the terms of this agreement before downloading, copying, displaying, performing, distributing or creating derivative works based on this work or any other Project Gutenberg™ work. The Foundation makes no representations concerning the copyright status of any work in any country other than the United States.
1.E. Unless you have removed all references to Project Gutenberg:
1.E.1. The following sentence, with active links to, or other immediate access to, the full Project Gutenberg™ License must appear prominently whenever any copy of a Project Gutenberg™ work (any work on which the phrase “Project Gutenberg” appears, or with which the phrase “Project Gutenberg” is associated) is accessed, displayed, performed, viewed, copied or distributed:
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the United States and most other parts of the world at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at If you are not located in the United States, you will have to check the laws of the country where you are located before using this eBook.
1.E.2. If an individual Project Gutenberg™ electronic work is derived from texts not protected by U.S. copyright law (does not contain a notice indicating that it is posted with permission of the copyright holder), the work can be copied and distributed to anyone in the United States without paying any fees or charges. If you are redistributing or providing access to a work with the phrase “Project Gutenberg” associated with or appearing on the work, you must comply either with the requirements of paragraphs 1.E.1 through 1.E.7 or obtain permission for the use of the work and the Project Gutenberg™ trademark as set forth in paragraphs 1.E.8 or 1.E.9.
1.E.3. If an individual Project Gutenberg™ electronic work is posted with the permission of the copyright holder, your use and distribution must comply with both paragraphs 1.E.1 through 1.E.7 and any additional terms imposed by the copyright holder. Additional terms will be linked to the Project Gutenberg™ License for all works posted with the permission of the copyright holder found at the beginning of this work.
1.E.4. Do not unlink or detach or remove the full Project Gutenberg™ License terms from this work, or any files containing a part of this work or any other work associated with Project Gutenberg™.
1.E.5. Do not copy, display, perform, distribute or redistribute this electronic work, or any part of this electronic work, without prominently displaying the sentence set forth in paragraph 1.E.1 with active links or immediate access to the full terms of the Project Gutenberg™ License.
1.E.6. You may convert to and distribute this work in any binary, compressed, marked up, nonproprietary or proprietary form, including any word processing or hypertext form. However, if you provide access to or distribute copies of a Project Gutenberg™ work in a format other than “Plain Vanilla ASCII” or other format used in the official version posted on the official Project Gutenberg™ website (, you must, at no additional cost, fee or expense to the user, provide a copy, a means of exporting a copy, or a means of obtaining a copy upon request, of the work in its original “Plain Vanilla ASCII” or other form. Any alternate format must include the full Project Gutenberg™ License as specified in paragraph 1.E.1.
1.E.7. Do not charge a fee for access to, viewing, displaying, performing, copying or distributing any Project Gutenberg™ works unless you comply with paragraph 1.E.8 or 1.E.9.
1.E.8. You may charge a reasonable fee for copies of or providing access to or distributing Project Gutenberg™ electronic works provided that:
• You pay a royalty fee of 20% of the gross profits you derive from the use of Project Gutenberg™ works calculated using the method you already use to calculate your applicable taxes. The fee is owed to the owner of the Project Gutenberg™ trademark, but he has agreed to donate royalties under this paragraph to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. Royalty payments must be paid within 60 days following each date on which you prepare (or are legally required to prepare) your periodic tax returns. Royalty payments should be clearly marked as such and sent to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation at the address specified in Section 4, “Information about donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.”
• You provide a full refund of any money paid by a user who notifies you in writing (or by e-mail) within 30 days of receipt that s/he does not agree to the terms of the full Project Gutenberg™ License. You must require such a user to return or destroy all copies of the works possessed in a physical medium and discontinue all use of and all access to other copies of Project Gutenberg™ works.
• You provide, in accordance with paragraph 1.F.3, a full refund of any money paid for a work or a replacement copy, if a defect in the electronic work is discovered and reported to you within 90 days of receipt of the work.
• You comply with all other terms of this agreement for free distribution of Project Gutenberg™ works.
1.E.9. If you wish to charge a fee or distribute a Project Gutenberg™ electronic work or group of works on different terms than are set forth in this agreement, you must obtain permission in writing from the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, the manager of the Project Gutenberg™ trademark. Contact the Foundation as set forth in Section 3 below.
1.F.1. Project Gutenberg volunteers and employees expend considerable effort to identify, do copyright research on, transcribe and proofread works not protected by U.S. copyright law in creating the Project Gutenberg™ collection. Despite these efforts, Project Gutenberg™ electronic works, and the medium on which they may be stored, may contain “Defects,” such as, but not limited to, incomplete, inaccurate or corrupt data, transcription errors, a copyright or other intellectual property infringement, a defective or damaged disk or other medium, a computer virus, or computer codes that damage or cannot be read by your equipment.
1.F.2. LIMITED WARRANTY, DISCLAIMER OF DAMAGES - Except for the “Right of Replacement or Refund” described in paragraph 1.F.3, the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, the owner of the Project Gutenberg™ trademark, and any other party distributing a Project Gutenberg™ electronic work under this agreement, disclaim all liability to you for damages, costs and expenses, including legal fees. YOU AGREE THAT YOU HAVE NO REMEDIES FOR NEGLIGENCE, STRICT LIABILITY, BREACH OF WARRANTY OR BREACH OF CONTRACT EXCEPT THOSE PROVIDED IN PARAGRAPH 1.F.3. YOU AGREE THAT THE FOUNDATION, THE TRADEMARK OWNER, AND ANY DISTRIBUTOR UNDER THIS AGREEMENT WILL NOT BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR ACTUAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, CONSEQUENTIAL, PUNITIVE OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES EVEN IF YOU GIVE NOTICE OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
1.F.3. LIMITED RIGHT OF REPLACEMENT OR REFUND - If you discover a defect in this electronic work within 90 days of receiving it, you can receive a refund of the money (if any) you paid for it by sending a written explanation to the person you received the work from. If you received the work on a physical medium, you must return the medium with your written explanation. The person or entity that provided you with the defective work may elect to provide a replacement copy in lieu of a refund. If you received the work electronically, the person or entity providing it to you may choose to give you a second opportunity to receive the work electronically in lieu of a refund. If the second copy is also defective, you may demand a refund in writing without further opportunities to fix the problem.
1.F.4. Except for the limited right of replacement or refund set forth in paragraph 1.F.3, this work is provided to you ‘AS-IS’, WITH NO OTHER WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PURPOSE.
1.F.5. Some states do not allow disclaimers of certain implied warranties or the exclusion or limitation of certain types of damages. If any disclaimer or limitation set forth in this agreement violates the law of the state applicable to this agreement, the agreement shall be interpreted to make the maximum disclaimer or limitation permitted by the applicable state law. The invalidity or unenforceability of any provision of this agreement shall not void the remaining provisions.
1.F.6. INDEMNITY - You agree to indemnify and hold the Foundation, the trademark owner, any agent or employee of the Foundation, anyone providing copies of Project Gutenberg™ electronic works in accordance with this agreement, and any volunteers associated with the production, promotion and distribution of Project Gutenberg™ electronic works, harmless from all liability, costs and expenses, including legal fees, that arise directly or indirectly from any of the following which you do or cause to occur: (a) distribution of this or any Project Gutenberg™ work, (b) alteration, modification, or additions or deletions to any Project Gutenberg™ work, and (c) any Defect you cause.
Section 2. Information about the Mission of Project Gutenberg™
Project Gutenberg™ is synonymous with the free distribution of electronic works in formats readable by the widest variety of computers including obsolete, old, middle-aged and new computers. It exists because of the efforts of hundreds of volunteers and donations from people in all walks of life.
Volunteers and financial support to provide volunteers with the assistance they need are critical to reaching Project Gutenberg™’s goals and ensuring that the Project Gutenberg™ collection will remain freely available for generations to come. In 2001, the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation was created to provide a secure and permanent future for Project Gutenberg™ and future generations. To learn more about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation and how your efforts and donations can help, see Sections 3 and 4 and the Foundation information page at
Section 3. Information about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation
The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation is a non-profit 501(c)(3) educational corporation organized under the laws of the state of Mississippi and granted tax exempt status by the Internal Revenue Service. The Foundation’s EIN or federal tax identification number is 64-6221541. Contributions to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation are tax deductible to the full extent permitted by U.S. federal laws and your state’s laws.
The Foundation’s business office is located at 809 North 1500 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116, (801) 596-1887. Email contact links and up to date contact information can be found at the Foundation’s website and official page at
Section 4. Information about Donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation
Project Gutenberg™ depends upon and cannot survive without widespread public support and donations to carry out its mission of increasing the number of public domain and licensed works that can be freely distributed in machine-readable form accessible by the widest array of equipment including outdated equipment. Many small donations ($1 to $5,000) are particularly important to maintaining tax exempt status with the IRS.
The Foundation is committed to complying with the laws regulating charities and charitable donations in all 50 states of the United States. Compliance requirements are not uniform and it takes a considerable effort, much paperwork and many fees to meet and keep up with these requirements. We do not solicit donations in locations where we have not received written confirmation of compliance. To SEND DONATIONS or determine the status of compliance for any particular state visit
While we cannot and do not solicit contributions from states where we have not met the solicitation requirements, we know of no prohibition against accepting unsolicited donations from donors in such states who approach us with offers to donate.
International donations are gratefully accepted, but we cannot make any statements concerning tax treatment of donations received from outside the United States. U.S. laws alone swamp our small staff.
Please check the Project Gutenberg web pages for current donation methods and addresses. Donations are accepted in a number of other ways including checks, online payments and credit card donations. To donate, please visit:
Section 5. General Information About Project Gutenberg™ electronic works
Professor Michael S. Hart was the originator of the Project Gutenberg™ concept of a library of electronic works that could be freely shared with anyone. For forty years, he produced and distributed Project Gutenberg™ eBooks with only a loose network of volunteer support.
Project Gutenberg™ eBooks are often created from several printed editions, all of which are confirmed as not protected by copyright in the U.S. unless a copyright notice is included. Thus, we do not necessarily keep eBooks in compliance with any particular paper edition.
Most people start at our website which has the main PG search facility:
This website includes information about Project Gutenberg™, including how to make donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, how to help produce our new eBooks, and how to subscribe to our email newsletter to hear about new eBooks.